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英语独立主格结构的特点是什么,用法小结有哪些

独立主格结构(Absolute Construction)由两部分组成,前一部分是名词或者代词,后一部分是非谓语动词(不定式、现在分词、过去分词)或形容词、副词、名词或介词短语。前后两部分具有逻辑主谓关系。其中,非谓语动词主动用现在分词,被动用过去分词。

独立主格结构在句中作状语,多用于书面语。
独立主格结构本身不是句子,在句子中作状语,表时间、原因、条件、伴随、目的及状态等。

1、独立主格结构的构成:

名词(代词)+现在分词、过去分词;

名词(代词)+形容词;

名词(代词)+副词;

名词(代词)+不定式;

名词(代词) +介词短语构成。

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2、独立主格结构的特点:

1)独立主格结构的逻辑主语与句子的主语不同,它独立存在。

2)名词或代词与后面的分词,形容词,副词,不定式,介词等是主谓关系。

3)独立主格结构一般有逗号与主句分开。

The test finished, we began our holiday. = ?When the test was finished, we began our
holiday.???考试结束了,我们开始放假。

The president assassinated, the whole
country was in deep sorrow.? = After the
president was assassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow.总统被谋杀了,举国上下沉浸在悲哀之中。

Weather permitting, we are going to visit
you tomorrow.= If weather permits we are going to visit you tomorrow,?如果天气允许,我们明天去看你。

This done, we went home. =? when this was to be done , we went home工作完成后,我们才回家。

He came into the room, his ears red with
cold. =?他回到了房子里,耳朵冻坏了。

He came out of the library, a large book
under his arm. =他夹着本厚书,走出了图书馆

3、With的复合结构作独立主格

表伴随时,既可用分词的独立结构,也可用with的复合结构。

with +名词(代词)+现在分词/过去分词/形容词/副词/不定式/介词短语

He stood there, his hand raised.? ?= ?He stood there, with his hand raise.

The murder was brought in, with his hands tied
?behind his back。

with +名词(代词)+分词+介词短语结构。当分词表示伴随状况时,其主语常常用with来引导。由于本句中名词”手”与分词”绑”是被动关系

特殊情况注意:

1)独立主格结构使用介词的问题:

当介词是in时,其前后的两个名词均不加任何成分(如物主代词或冠词),也不用复数。但with的复合结构不受此限制

A robber burst into the room, knife in
hand.?( hand前不能加his)。

2)当表示人体部位的词做逻辑主语时,及物动词用现在分词,不及物动词用过去分词。

He lay there, his teeth set, his hand
clenched, his eyes looking straight up.

Weather?
permitting,we’ll go out for a walk.

句中没有连词,它不是复合句,也不是并列句。
句中使用了逗号,且we小写,可知其不是两个简单句。能够这样使用的只有独立主格或with的复合结构。

类似这类情况下,如果不会判断独立结构作状语的形

式,不妨将句子改为条件句,例如本句改为If weather permits, we’ll go out for a walk.然后将if去掉,再将谓语动词改为非谓语动词即可。

关于独立主格结构,尤其是在阅读和写作当中,为了呈现句式层次多变,形雅思式内容更加更丰富,适当的选择把一些状语从句形式可以转换成独立主格结构形式,会增加文章的文采,更加彰显语言功底,并且使得语言更加简练。


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